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- ItemConsular Diplomacy: A Conceptual Framework for Analysis and Decision-making(University of Malta; DiploFoundation, 2010-02-16)This dissertation explores the consular functions performed in three developed countries and draws from that data to develop a conceptual framework for decision making and analysis of consular affairs. The paper examines the historical evolution of consular functions and the problems of defining consular functions on a universal basis. The findings of this research initially define the categories of consular services performed in contemporary diplomacy, and subsequently, conceptualises how each function may become relatively more important to a nation state. Among the important finding of this research are the distinct differences in the nature of consular functions related to „protection‟, „documentary‟, and „border control‟ services. This paper argues that the scope of consular work is in fact broader than „protection‟ of nationals abroad. Moreover, the paper highlights the inherent theoretical conflicts between representing individual interests and national interest while performing these multifarious functions, and moreover, how this conflict may not only lead to rifts between consuls and diplomats, but also how consular immunity may be the target of promoting strategic interests in times of conflict. In conclusion, the dissertation argues that the importance given by any state to enhance and broaden the consular institution is indicative of the value it places on its own nationals, thereby signalling the value it places on its national identity. The consular function thus becomes a window through which a state projects its „nationhood‟in competition with rival identities and interests in the nation-state system.
- ItemThe Positive Branding of Islam: A Case Study of Islamic countries their Public Diplomacy Efforts and Effectiveness(University of Malta; DiploFoundation, 2010-01-31)This thesis examines if any attempts are made by the Muslim world to address the current negative image of Islam using public diplomacy (PD) and if these efforts are effective and successful. It is the aim of this research to show that the correct use of PD can result in a positive improvement of the image of Islam.The first chapter provides an overview of issues and factors influencing the current relationship between the Muslim and the Western world. The second , third and fourth chapter provide a profile of the countries studied, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, Malaysia, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the Republic of Senegal, focusing on PD efforts to change the current image of Islam. Efforts are compared, analyzed on impact on the existing image in the West. It concludes that all four countries are involved in efforts to change the image of Islam through PD, however a non-supportive domestic situation, lack of understanding of the culture in the West as well as a lack of unified coordination challenge the success of these efforts. The thesis concludes with the firm belief that public diplomacy can make a difference in the image of Islam.
- ItemInfluence of economic relations on bilateral relations(University of Malta; DiploFoundation, 2010-01-25)The title of the master thesis is “Influence of economic relations on bilateral relations”. Firstly, three thesis statements concerning the influence of economic relations on non economic bilateral relations have been developed. In order to validate the thesis statements a methodology was chosen that is mainly data driven and based on two case studies and a data comparison procedure, as opposed to a "theoretical approach". After the methodology was evaluated a choice of cases was made and data were collected. Furthermore appropriate data (frequency and availability of data) were collected and presented. Finally data evaluation was undertaken (as a comparability check) and conclusions (e.g. that the relation of Germany and France is 100:8 stronger than Germany-China, based on data!) derived from the collected data were made. As a next step the "impact matrix" of Vester (that is commonly used to analyze influences) was developed based on the data out of the two cases and the data comparison sections. Based on all evaluated data, the final evaluation of the thesis statements took place with the following results: Evaluation of 1st Thesis: Confirmed Evaluation of 2nd Thesis: Confirmed Evaluation of 3rd Thesis: Confirmed
- ItemSmall States at the United Nations(University of Malta; DiploFoundation, 2010-02)The proliferation of small states in the past few decades has brought small and larger states on the same playing field. Their increase in number triggered a wave of studies, raised concern by „realists‟ and some powerful states, and an affirmation that at the United Nations, all states are equal, regardless of size. The dissertation looks into the role small states have played – and continue to play – within the United Nations. It looks at definitions, characteristics and small states‟ behaviour within the General Assembly, and with regards to the Security Council. It also looks into some of the proposals initiated by small states which have eventually lead to the establishment of legally-binding norms, international agreements and initiatives, co-operation models, and some of today‟s well-known institutions. Finally, it highlights the lessons learnt from the role small states have played within the United Nations, which serve as potential strategies states – in particular, but not exclusively, small states – can continue to adopt.
- ItemA New Wave for the Reform of the Security Council of the United Nations: Great Expectations but Little Results(University of Malta; DiploFoundation, 2010-01-31)The reform of the Security Council of the United Nations (UNSC) has been an elusive issue at the United Nations (UN). While practically all Member States agree on the need to change the structure of the most powerful body of the world organization, so far there has been no agreement about what elements of that reform or about the substance of the reform itself. In 2008, after more than 15 years of discussions in the Open Ended Working Group (OEWG) with little progress, the General Assembly of the United Nations (UNGA) requested the OEWG to start intergovernmental negotiations on February 19, 2009. The general idea was that it should be easier for the Member States to agree on those issues where agreement existed, and to leave the most difficult issues for later. This approach termed interim, intermediary or transitional included the proviso of a mandatory review in the future at a time to be decided by the UN membership. This dissertation discusses and analyzes the attempts at UNSC reform, with emphasis on the intergovernmental negotiations launched in 2009. It argues that little substantial agreement so far has come from such intergovernmental negotiations. Research findings indicate that insurmountable obstacles still lie ahead and that it is unlikely that the august body will be reformed any time soon. None of the proposals so far has obtained the necessary support for approval by the UNGA and serious disagreements continue to exist. All UN members recognize the need to make the UNSC more representative of the realities of the modern world, and that this means to expand the Council to offer participation to more members, but continue to disagree on how to do it.